Student Achievement

A Research Synthesis of the Associations Between Socioeconomic Background, Inequality, School Climate, and Academic Achievement


Source
American Educational Research Association: Review of Educational Research

Abstract

Educational researchers and practitioners assert that supportive school and classroom climates can positively influence the academic outcomes of students, thus potentially reducing academic achievement gaps between students and schools of different socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Nonetheless, scientific evidence establishing directional links and mechanisms between SES, school climate, and academic performance is inconclusive. This comprehensive review of studies dating back to the year 2000 examined whether a positive climate can successfully disrupt the associations between low SES and poor academic achievement. Positive climate was found to mitigate the negative contribution of weak SES background on academic achievement; however, most studies do not provide a basis for deducing a directional influence and causal relations. Additional research is encouraged to establish the nature of impact positive climate has on academic achievement and a multifaceted body of knowledge regarding the multilevel climate dimensions related to academic achievement.

Article Information

Berkowitz, R., Moore, H., Astor, R. A., & Benbenishty, R. (2017). A Research Synthesis of the Associations Between Socioeconomic Background, Inequality, School Climate, and Academic Achievement. Review of Educational Research, 87(2), 425–469. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654316669821

School Climate, Student Engagement, and Academic Achievement: A Latent Variable, Multilevel Multi-Informant Examination


Source
American Educational Research Association & University of Virginia

Abstract

This study tested the authoritative school climate theory that schools characterized by high structure and student support have greater levels of student engagement and that these factors are associated with higher academic achievement, as indicated by school graduation rates and school performance on state-mandated testing. The model was tested through a multilevel multi-informant structural model on a statewide sample of 60,441 students and 11,442 teachers in 298 high schools. Consistent with the authoritative school climate model, both structure and student support were associated with higher student engagement in schools. Moreover, student engagement was directly associated with academic achievement and operated as an intervening factor. Results provide new evidence that an authoritative school climate is associated with high school academic achievement.

Article Information

Konold, Timothy & Cornell, Dewey & Jia, Yuane & Malone, Marisa. (2018). School Climate, Student Engagement, and Academic Achievement: A Latent Variable, Multilevel Multi-Informant Examination. AERA Open. 4. 233285841881566. 10.1177/2332858418815661.

School environment key to retaining teachers, promoting student achievement, study finds


Source
Brown University

Abstract

We study the relationship between school organizational contexts, teacher turnover, and student achievement in New York City (NYC) middle schools. Using factor analysis, we construct measures of four distinct dimensions of school climate captured on the annual NYC School Survey. We identify credible estimates by isolating variation in organizational contexts within schools over time. We find that improvements in school leadership especially, as well as in academic expectations, teacher relationships, and school safety are all independently associated with corresponding reductions in teacher turnover. Increases in school safety and academic expectations also correspond with student achievement gains. These results are robust to a range of threats to validity suggesting that our findings are consistent with an underlying causal relationship.

Article Information

Kraft, M. A., Marinell, W. H., & Yee, D. S.-W. (2016). School Organizational Contexts, Teacher Turnover, and Student Achievement: Evidence From Panel Data. American Educational Research Journal, 53(5), 1411–1449. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831216667478

School Climate and Academic Achievement in Middle and High School Students


Source
Journal of School Health

Abstract

Emergent evidence suggests a positive school climate may be a promising population‐level intervention to promote academic achievement and student well‐being. However, researchers have called for expanding the school climate evidence‐base to better describe how the construct is associated with student outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between 10 school climate domains and academic achievement among middle and high school students. METHODS ANOVAs were used to analyze survey data from 6–12 grade students in a Mid‐Atlantic US state (n = 2405, response rate: middle school = 82.4%, 50.5% female; high school = 62.5%, 56.1% female). RESULTS Significant main effects were found for all school climate domains and varied between middle and high school students apart from academic support. Effect sizes ranged from small to medium, with academic support demonstrating the strongest effects among both middle and high school students. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest school climate is associated with academic achievement for both middle and high school students. Correctly identifying the role of key aspects of school climate by grade‐level may provide improved and developmentally appropriate recommendations for the delivery of instruction and school‐based interventions that promote positive school well‐being and student performance.

Article Information

M. Daily, Shay & J. Mann, Michael & Kristjansson, Alfgeir & Smith, Megan & J. Zullig, Keith. (2019). School Climate and Academic Achievement in Middle and High School Students. Journal of School Health. 89. 173-180. 10.1111/josh.12726.

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